eCollection 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.06.012, 35. In a 2017 study done in the U.S., United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany, close to … (2012) 24:66–76. Koronczai B, Urbán R, Kökönyei G, Paksi B, Papp K, Kun B, et al. doi: 10.1016/j.abrep.2018.06.004, 15. Evaluation of the diagnostic criteria of internet gaming disorder in the DSM-5 among young adults in Taiwan. Lastly, the present study employs the IGDS9-SF as the assessment tool developed under the DSM-5 framework. doi: 10.18637/jss.v048.i02, 41. The findings also provide support for its structural validity in terms of the excellent model fit across all fit indices, indicating that the unidimensional structure as described in the ICD-11 framework reflects the optimal factor structure for the construct of gaming disorder. J Behav Addict. Addict Behav Rep. (2015) 1:49–56. Hence, these findings provide robust support for the structural validity of the GDT. In contrast, recent findings indicate that games encouraging high in-game expenditure tend to jeopardize adolescents, who are not financially independent, and may thus have to deceive family members or friends to cover that expenditure (57). Behav Inform Technol. Zendle D, Cairns P. Video game loot boxes are linked to problem gambling: results of a large-scale survey. 1. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/features/qa/gaming-disorder/en/, 13. Although several items appear in both the GDT and IGDS9-SF, it is necessary to scrutinize the differences regarding the wording of this common set of items. When examining the differences among the increasingly more constrained models, relative changes in not only χ2 but also CFI and RMSEA were examined, because the chi-square difference test has been found oversensitive in measurement invariance analysis. A recent study has tested validated measures constructed from both frameworks, and the findings showed that the two measures yielded comparable prevalence rates and similar patterns of associations with mental health indicators (15). J Psychiatr Res. The World Health Organization (WHO) is preparing to release its latest version of the International Classification of Diseases, the ICD-11 in May, 2019. Our compensation rate ($1 for 10 min) adhered to the regulations of Prolific Academic. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multigroup CFA were performed using the lavaan package for R [version 5.20 (40)]. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2017.01.006, 37. (2011) 14:657–64. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. (2017) 75:652–9. (2007) 14:464–504. Their weekly gaming time was calculated by multiplying the daily gaming time by 7 for each mode of video gaming. Cyberloafing at the workplace: gain or drain on work? |, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.577366, http://www.who.int/features/qa/gaming-disorder/en/, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), Department of Psychology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. (2016) 84:46–58. Deleuze J, Rochat L, Romo L, Van der Linden M, Achab S, Thorens G, et al. (2016) 19:674–9. (2018) 7:62–9. King DL, Herd MC, Delfabbro PH. J Behav Addict. (2019) 32:291–302. (2019) 8:945. doi: 10.3390/jcm8070945, 14. Leung H, Pakpour AH, Strong C, Lin Y-C, Tsai M-C, Griffiths MD, et al. doi: 10.1556/2006.7.2018.12, 30. doi: 10.1162/pres.15.3.309, 47. Gaming disorder is a pattern of gaming behaviour ('digital-gaming' or 'video-gaming') which: Causes an overwhelming urge to spend all the time gaming. doi: 10.1556/2006.5.2016.062, 59. At the next level, metric invariance analysis imposes additional constraints that require the item factor loadings to be equal across demographic groups. The participants provided online informed consent to participate in this study. In addition, the unidimensionality of such measure has also been supported by most of the fit indices; but Item 8 of this measure— “Do you play in order to temporarily escape or relieve a negative mood (e.g., helplessness, guilt, anxiety)?—had a particularly weak factor loading. The Gaming Disorder Test [GDT (2)] was developed based on this framework, with the measure validated in China and the United Kingdom. We recruited 544 participants from 34 countries. Peer E, Brandimarte L, Samat S, Acquisti A. Behav Brain Funct. (2018) 13:e0206767. Psychometric validation of the Persian nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short Form: Does gender and hours spent online gaming affect the interpretations of item descriptions? Cheung GW, Rensvold RB. The results revealed both measures to have good reliability, structural validity, and criterion validity, with the exception of one IGDS9-SF item with a low factor loading. Wu AM, Chen JH, Tong K-K, Yu S, Lau JT. Király O, Sleczka P, Pontes HM, Urbán R, Griffiths MD, Demetrovics Z. In this study, we examined the measurement invariance properties across three demographic characteristics1: (1) gender (men vs. women), (2) age (younger vs. older players), and (3) employment status (students, full-time workers, vs. non-full-time workers). The development of the motives for online gaming questionnaire (MOGQ). Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 6,4 % berichteten, dass ihnen das Gaming signifikante Probleme bereitete. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Potential variations in gender and age were tested because studies have indicated that gaming disorder tends to be more prevalent among male players and younger players [e.g., (24–28)]. (2014) 53:103–10. Comput Hum Behav. Epub 2016 Jul 6. The inclusion of gaming disorder (GD) as an official diagnosis in the ICD-11 was a significant milestone for the field. Hence, the undesirable outcomes associated with a greater amount of time spent on gaming may be perceived differently by student players and employed players. Gaming disorder has recently been classified as one of the “disorders due to addictive behaviors” in the ICD-11. Are you concerned about your gaming… Cole JC, Rabin AS, Smith TL, Kaufman AS. Validating the distinction between computer addiction and engagement: online game playing and personality. This model revealed an adequate and comparable model fit to that of the configural invariance model. (2013) 108:592–9. The present study provides empirical support for both the GDT and IGDS9-SF as valid measures for symptom assessment. Scoring just a hair less than Evan, Steven is also considered more likely to exhibit a Gaming Disorder. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193356, 24. INTERNET GAMING DISORDER BULETIN PSIKOLOGI 5 emosi, mencari tantangan, dan melarikan diri dari kenyataan (Hussain dan Griffiths, 2008). Front Psychiatry. The IGDS9-SF (Pontes et al., 2015) was the first brief standardized psychometric tool to assess Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) according according to the nine Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) criteria as suggested by the American Psychiatric Association in the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). However, the optimal measurement approaches for GD are currently unclear. Figure 2. Measurement invariance for gender, age, and employment status for two gaming disorder measures. Second, our participants were recruited primarily from North America and Europe, and hence the results may not be generalizable to other cultural regions, including East Asia and South America. In contrast, the more comprehensive DSM-5 framework encompasses a wider variety of cognitive and behavioral manifestations of the disorder. (20)]. Addiction. (2016) 19:288–93. The tendency for problematic gaming was measured with the Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10; Király et al., 2017) to provide a better sample description. The IGD-20 Test includes 20 items reflecting the nine criteria of IGD as in the DSM-5 [1] and incorporated the theoretical framework of the components model of addiction (i.e., salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, conflict and relapse) [20] . The Gaming Disorder Test (GDT) was developed after gaming disorder was officially included in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD … As shown in Table 3, after controlling for the existing IGDS9-SF measure, the newer GDT measure was unable to explain a significant proportion of the additional variance for social anxiety and depressive symptoms. Chen FF. More recently, gaming disorder was officially included as a mental health disorder in the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases [ICD-11 (12)] to facilitate further research and the formulation of social policy. Prevalence and characteristics of addictive behaviors in a community sample: a latent class analysis. Psychiatry, 17 December 2020 Criterion and construct validity of the IGDT-10 was supported by its strong association with the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire and moderate association with weekly gaming time, psychopathological symptoms, and impulsivity. Thus, future inquiries should evaluate whether this item is a precise indicator of gaming disorder, or whether it simply reflects a high, but not problematic, level of engagement in gaming. NLM To address this important but unexplored issue, the present study evaluated and compared the psychometric properties of the GDT and IGDS9-SF in a sample of 544 adult gamers (56.2% men; mean age = 28.8, SD = 8.55). J Behav Addict. State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY (2017) (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Hence, the shorter GDT, at just four items, may be a more suitable choice to meet these purposes. In addition, the mean score of Item 8 was notably higher than the rest of the items. More than half (56.2%) were men, and the average age of the sample was 28.8 (SD = 8.55, range = 18–62). Psychometric validation of the Turkish nine-item internet gaming disorder scale-short form (IGDS9-SF). Similar to weekly general gaming time, both the GDT (r = 0.29) and IGDS9-SF (r = 0.22) were positively associated with weekly online gaming time. Taken together, these results indicate the incremental validity of the GDT over the IGDS9-SF in explaining both weekly general and weekly online gaming time. 3. (2019) 101:105969. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.04.027, 10. Do coping strategies moderate the relationship between escapism and negative gaming outcomes in World of Warcraft (MMORPG) players? doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.031, 21. Müller KW, Beutel M, Egloff B, Wölfling K. Investigating risk factors for internet gaming disorder: a comparison of patients with addictive gaming, pathological gamblers and healthy controls regarding the big five personality traits. doi: 10.1556/2006.6.2017.072, 51. Stavropoulos V, Beard C, Griffiths MD, Buleigh T, Gomez R, Pontes HM. Psychol Assess. Griffiths M. Is the buying of loot boxes in video games a form of gambling or gaming? (2015) 61:330–42. One study tested this questionnaire in multiple locations: Albania, the USA, the UK, and Italy (de Palo et al., 2018). For instance, one item included in the IGDS9-SF has stronger emphasis on the interpersonal difficulties of players compared to that of the GDT. The IGDT-10 shows robust psychometric properties and appears suitable for conducting cross-cultural and gender comparisons across seven languages. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale Short Form (IGDS9-SF) is a nine question questionnaire that mirrors the nine diagnostic symptoms for IGD. Internet Gaming Disorder is a “Condition for Further Study” in the DSM-5 (APA 2013). Bernaldo-de-Quirós M, Labrador-Méndez M, Sánchez-Iglesias I, Labrador F. Measurement instruments of online gaming disorder in adolescents and young people according to DSM-5 criteria: a systematic review. Another major factor to consider is the comprehensiveness of a measure, that is, whether the measure sufficiently examines all important domains of gaming disorder (63). Palan S, Schitter C. Prolific.ac-A subject pool for online experiments. Sigerson L, Cheng C. Scales for measuring user engagement with social network sites: a systematic review of psychometric properties. Montag C, Schivinski B, Sariyska R, Kannen C, Demetrovics Z, Pontes HM. It is also noteworthy that the two IGDS9-SF items concerning tolerance and deception yielded a poorer estimation of gaming disorder severity among student players than employed players. doi: 10.1080/01449290903401978, 66. The Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) is a short screening instrument developed to assess Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of MentalDisorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), adopting a concise, clear, and consistent item-wording. Psychol Assess. Psychol Assess. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.15.4.456, 31. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2015.0534, 20. Addict Behav. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. doi: 10.20882/adicciones.1277, 7. (2011) 51:492–6. Diagnostic and Classification Considerations Regarding Gaming Disorder: Neurocognitive and Neurobiological Features. For the IGDS9-SF, it is also found to be reliable.  |  (2018) 17:22–7. Pontes HM, Griffiths MD. Sarda E, Bègue L, Bry C, Gentile D. Internet gaming disorder and well-being: a scale validation. As the scale items for both measures have five response options, the diagonally weighted least-squares method (DWLS) was used to estimate the model because of its suitability for CFA with ordered categorical variables. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118, 42. Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD, Pontes HM. Gaming Disorder. This scale includes four items to examine recurrent gaming over a 12-month period, regardless of the mode of gaming (e.g., online or offline) or the device used for playing (e.g., consoles, mobile devices, or personal computers). J Exp Soc Psychol. A major factor to consider is the length of a gaming disorder measure (6). Dreier M, Wölfling K, Duven E, Giralt S, Beutel M, Müller K. Free-to-play: about addicted whales, at risk dolphins and healthy minnows. Figure 1. This scale adopts a unidimensional measurement approach to evaluate social apprehension based on six items. Background and aims: The Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) is a short screening instrument developed to assess Internet gaming disorder (IGD) … A third major factor to consider is item wording. As the IGDS9-SF has consistently been shown to account for the variance in such mental health-related criterion measures as depressive and social anxiety symptoms [e.g., (32, 33)], as well as gaming time [e.g., (10, 34)], it is important to test whether the new GDT can explain the variance in these criterion measures beyond the contribution made by the existing IGDS9-SF. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Hagström D, Kaldo V. Escapism among players of MMORPGs-Conceptual clarification, its relation to mental health factors, and development of a new measure. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. Comput Hum Behav. Table 2. The comprehensive scope of the IGDS9-SF makes it potentially more appropriate for use in studies examining multidimensional gaming-related constructs that evaluate various aspects of gaming (e.g., gaming motivation, player identification). Although the DSM-5 labels the problem “Internet gaming disorder,” it states that the disorder also involves non-Internet or offline games (3). Addict Behav. (2011) 43, 814–25. (2019). Pearcy BT, Roberts LD, McEvoy PM. *Correspondence: Cecilia Cheng, ceci-cheng@hku.hk, Front. The amount of gaming was assessed with two items asking how many hours per day, on average, participants played video games online and offline, respectively. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.08.031, 29. GD, gaming disorder (assessed by GDT); SA, social anxiety symptoms; DEP, depressive symptoms. At the final level, scalar invariance analysis holds the item intercepts on the latent variables to be equal across groups. (2019) 90:1–9. Presence. As GDT is a newer measure of gaming disorder, sensitivity, and specificity tests should be conducted among clinical samples to obtain a clinically useful cut-off for screening at-risk clients. The Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) is a short screening instrument developed to assess Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM–5), adopting a concise, clear, and consistent item-wording. The criterion validity was first tested with correlation analysis. H-YW coordinated the data collection process, performed all the statistical analyses, and completed the first draft of the manuscript. Impact Factor 2.849 | CiteScore 3.2More on impact ›, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science (CAS), China. MMORPGs memungkinkan terjadi-nya … Confirmatory factor analytical model testing the criterion validity of Gaming Disorder Test. In addition, the issues of non-normality were not pertinent for our analyses, because the DWLS method was utilized. Wang H-Y, Cheng C. New perspectives on the prevalence and associated factors of gaming disorder in Hong Kong community adults: A generational approach. (2006) 15:309–29. doi: 10.1016/j.abrep.2015.04.001, 18. To evaluate model fit, we adopted the widely adopted criteria: CFI > 0.095, TLI > 0.095, RMSEA < 0.06, SRMR < 0.08 (41). Psychiatry 11:577366. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.577366. doi: 10.1089/glr2.2018.2216, 53. Behav Inf Technol. (2016) 43:58–66. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Thus, the results failed to support the incremental validity of the GDT for predicting these two mental health-related criterion measures. In this study, data were collected from 7,193 participants comprising Hungarian (n = 3,924), Iranian (n = 791), English-speaking (n = 754), French-speaking (n = 421), Norwegian (n = 195), Czech (n = 496), and Peruvian (n = 612) online gamers via gaming-related websites and gaming-related social-networking-site groups. As gaming disorder measures are often used in large-scale population surveys with heterogeneous community samples [e.g., (17–19)], measurement invariance is essential for detecting the influence of demographic characteristics in between-group comparisons. Psychopathological symptoms and gaming motives in disordered gaming-A psychometric comparison between the WHO and APA diagnostic frameworks. (2015) 45:137–43. Front. (2017) 6:525–33. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the additional contribution of the newly developed GDT over the existing widely used IGDS9-SF to explaining social anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and gaming time. Moreover, the IGDS9-SF exhibited scalar measurement invariance for gender and age but only partial metric invariance for employment status, whereas the GDT exhibited scalar measurement invariance for all three demographic characteristics. The Gaming Disorder Test (GDT) was developed after gaming disorder was officially included in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) in 2018. The important thing is simply to begin, because taking that first action step is what leads the way toward reduced depression and gaming disorder. Gaming disorder refers to a condition involving excessive gaming behavior with negative life consequences. Macey J, Hamari J. eSports, skins and loot boxes: participants, practices and problematic behaviour associated with emergent forms of gambling. Addict Behav. Int J Ment Health Addict. More specifically, the findings revealed that Item 3 (tolerance) and Item 7 (deception) had weaker factor loadings in the student sample than in the employed sample. (2018) 265:349–54. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. Neuropsychiatry. (2017) 70:153–63. CFA was conducted for assessing structural validity. The present protocol received prior ethical approval from the institutional review board of the authors' university. (2002) 9:233–55. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206767, 55. Haynes SN, Lench HC. Associations among the study variables were examined using Pearson zero-order correlation analysis. Eur Addict Res. However, in our psychometric analyses, we identified several IGDS9-SF items that require further scrutiny. Addict Behav. Pontes HM, Griffiths MD. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by University of Hong Kong's Human Research Ethics Committee. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.02.008, 65. Comput Hum Behav. Int J Soc Psychiatry. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. (44); CIGDS by Sigerson et al. Measurement Invariance of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) between the United States of America, India and the United Kingdom. Dauriat FZ, Zermatten A, Billieux J, Thorens G, Bondolfi G, Zullino D, et al. (2017) 74:20–6. Incremental validity of new clinical assessment measures. This study provides the first psychometric comparison of the new GDT and the popular IGDS9-SF. Factor structure and measurement invariance across various demographic groups and over time for the PHQ-9 in primary care patients in Spain. Motivations to play specifically predict excessive involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: evidence from an online survey. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.04.030, 48. Similarities and differences among internet gaming disorder, gambling disorder and alcohol use disorder: A focus on impulsivity and compulsivity. Healthcare professionals may utilize the diagnostic criteria and codes outlined in either the ICD-11 or DSM-5 for assessing symptoms of this emergent psychological problem. Explaining differences in subjective well-being across 33 nations using multilevel models: universal personality, cultural relativity, and national income. Lastly, our analysis produced mixed findings concerning the incremental validity of the GDT over the IGDS9-SF. Such findings can inform researchers and practitioners the unique contribution of the newly developed GDT, and such information is useful for assisting their decisions regarding whether to include the new or existing measures in their protocol. doi: 10.1177/0020764014543711, 68. Epub 2017 Jun 2. J Behav Addict. J Reprod Infant Psychol. Hence, researchers requiring methods with a short protocol (e.g., telephone survey) will find the GDT to be a brief, valid assessment tool that can be easily administered to a heterogeneous sample. Both the GDT and IGDS9-SF had significant positive associations with social anxiety symptoms (GDT: r = 0.41; IGDS9-SF: r = 0.40) and depressive symptoms (GDT: r = 0.40; IGDS9-SF: r = 0.39). doi: 10.1089/cyber.2010.0345, 64. doi: 10.1080/10705510701301834, 43. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.05.004, 23. Previous multinational comparisons have identified considerable differences in thinking and behavior among the inhabitants of diverse cultural regions (69), and the measurement invariance of cultural region should be established to allow more extensive cross-cultural comparisons of the prevalence of gaming disorder. Means that gaming is given priority over any other activity, work or school, or any other interest. The Gaming Disorder Test [GDT (2)] was adopted to measure gaming disorder based on the ICD-11 framework. Moreover, brief measures are also preferred for use in online surveys, because a shorter survey length has been associated with lower drop-out rates (62). We conducted four tests for evaluating the fundamental psychometric properties of these two measures, including structural validity, criterion validity, concurrent validity, and reliability analysis. However, the IGDS9-SF is preferred for screening clients who are at-risk for gaming disorder, because an optimal cut-off value has been identified for this measure with high sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing between gamers clinically diagnosed as having gaming disorder and those without this diagnosis (68). The figures inside the boxes represent the item numbers of the respective measures. 4. Király O, Sleczka P, Pontes HM, Urbán R, Griffiths MD, Demetrovics Z. Validation of the ten-item internet gaming disorder test (IGDT-10) and evaluation of the nine DSM-5 internet gaming disorder criteria. The short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D 10 (38)] was used to evaluate depressive symptoms. Severo RB, Barbosa APPN, Fouchy DRC, Coelho FMdC, Pinheiro RT, de Figueiredo VLM, et al. For instance, both Item 3 (tolerance) and Item 7 (deception) were evaluated based on the “amount of time” spent on gaming. Moreover, all of the factor loadings were statistically significant, and no factor loading for an individual item was below 0.70 (see the upper panel of Table 1). To evaluate measurement invariance, we performed multigroup CFA (16) to assess their measurement and scaling properties across three sample characteristics: gender, age, and employment status. Trait impulsivity and impaired prefrontal impulse inhibition function in adolescents with internet gaming addiction revealed by a Go/No-Go fMRI study. For the GDT, the model fit indices indicated a good fit with the data: χ2 = 362.096, CFI = 0.976, TLI = 0.960, RMSEA = 0.054, and SRMR = 0.062. Compared to the IGDS9-SF whose length is twice longer, the GDT provides an equally good or even better explanation of the data, as indicated by its incremental validity over the IGDS9-SF in accounting for variances in gaming time, as well as its scalar invariance property concerning employment status that is not found for the IGDS9-SF. (2021) 114:106574. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2020.106574, 28. Compared to the GDT, the IGDS9-SF offers a more comprehensive examination of gaming disorder based on the nine criteria. The nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form [IGDS9-SF; (7)] was selected to assess gaming disorder based on the DSM-5 framework. (2018). (2011) 17:185–9. Comput Hum Behav. Internet Gaming Disorder as a formative construct: Implications for conceptualization and measurement. (2018) 22:52–4. (2018) 13:e0193356. This study was funded by Hong Kong Research Grants Council's General Research Fund (17400714), and the University of Hong Kong's Seed Fund for Incubating Group-based Collaborative Research Projects (102009405) and Seed Fund for Basic Research (201711159216). Pontes HM, Schivinski B, Sindermann C, Li M, Becker B, Zhou M, et al. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! 49. (2010) 29:601–13. Hungarian National Research, Development, and Innovation Office, European Union; Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, Charles University; Institutional Support Programme, Ministry of Human Capacities; New National Excellence Program, 001/World Health Organization/International, NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. For the IGDS9-SF, the unidimensional model structure had an acceptable fit to the data: χ2 = 71.223, CFI = 0.952, TLI = 0.954, RMSEA = 0.064, and SRMR = 0.060. Comput Hum Behav. (1999) 6:1–55. (2019) 21:20–41. (2014) 20:129–36. Such incremental validity concerning gaming time may reflect potential differences between the more concise ICD-11 criteria and more comprehensive DSM-5 criteria. Each item was measured on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (never) to 5 (very often). Comput Hum Behav. (2019) 8:1691. doi: 10.3390/jcm8101691, 16. (2018) 78:133–41. J Clin Med. CC contributed to the editing and revision of the manuscript. (2004) 16:360–72. The internal consistency of the measures was assessed using both Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. 2017 Jun 1;6(2):256-263. doi: 10.1556/2006.6.2017.025. Im Schnitt verbrachten die Probanden zwölf Stunden pro Woche mit Videospielen. A change ≤-0.01 in the CFI and a change greater than or equal to 0.015 in the RMSEA were chosen as the cut-offs for non-invariance [see (16, 42)]. Wong PW, Li TM, Chan M, Law Y, Chau M, Cheng C, et al. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.06.033, 2. Video game addiction or “gaming disorder”, as it’s sometimes called, is a preoccupation that may be harmful to adults and teens. World Health Organization. Wu TY, Lin CY, Årestedt K, Griffiths MD, Broström A, Pakpour AH. Epub 2015 Nov 26. J Clin Med. 50. Wesley Yin-Poole Deputy Editor | wyp100 Wesley is … doi: 10.1089/cyber.2015.0605, 11. 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