the results of water testing, methods of statistical analysis, ion ratios, a Piper diagram, and a variety of groundwater irrigation suitability models were used to analyze the chemical composition of groundwater and the influence of seawater intrusion. Natural conditions. All soil types, except coarse sand with an infiltration rate of more than 30 mm/hour, can be used for surface irrigation. However, there are more ionic compositions in saline water, resulting in easy clogging of drip irrigation emitters. The module also highlights the advantages and d isad vantages of the d ifferent irrigation system s, as well as their suitability based on physical constraints and cropping system . 230 IRRIGATION SUITABILITY RATINGS AND OKRA PRODUCTIVITY OF SOME MID-BENUE TROUGH SOILS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS 1Abagyeh, S. O. I., 2Ibo, P. I. and 1Idoga, S. 1Department of Soil Science, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Makurdi, Benue State 2Benue Agricultural and Rural Development Authority, Makurdi, Benue State Corresponding Author’s e-mail: … Those crops that cannot stand a very wet soil for more than 12-24 hours should not be grown in basins. They are constructed and maintained by machines. Basin irrigation is the simplest of the surface irrigation methods. Drip irrigation is suited to irrigating individual plants or trees or row crops such as vegetables and sugarcane. Nutrients may also be provided to the crops through irrigation. 18 & 19. Sub-surface III. Also the border, sprinkler and drip irrigation methods are discussed, but in less detail. or Border Irrigation, 7.1 Surface, Sprinkler or Drip Irrigation. But all of these studies, ignore the continuous changes of soil properties and so it causes their evaluation results are not accurate enough. The increased number of alternative irrigation methods, drought and water shortages, increasing demand for food, concern for environmental protection, government involvement in the promotion of pressurized irrigation and private sector interest (the interest of suppliers of irrigation equipments to increase their income regardless of the consequences for farmers) have heightened … The comparison of the different types of irrigation techniques revealed that the sprinkle and drip irrigation methods were more effective and efficient than the surface irrigation methods for improving land productivity. Applying it beneath the soil surface 4. The frequency, rate, amount and time of irrigation are different for different crops and also vary according to the types of soil and seasons. In areas of supplementary irrigation, sprinkler or drip irrigation may be more suitable than surface irrigation because of their flexibility and adaptability to varying irrigation demands on the farm. Two different methods of irrigation are- modern methods that include sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation; traditional irrigation that includes manual irrigation where water is pulled out by the farmers themselves from the wells and canals to irrigate the land. In this, the water is distributed by a sprinkler system moving in a circular pattern. It has a simpler design than the furrow and border design. On loam or clay soils all three irrigation methods can be used, but surface irrigation is more commonly found. On the cost side not only the construction and installation, but also the operation and maintenance (per hectare) should be taken into account. Followings are the types of irrigation methods-Surface Irrigation; Localized Irrigation; Drip Irrigation; Sprinkler Irrigation; Center Pivot Irrigation; Lateral Move Irrigation; Sub-Irrigation; Manual Irrigation; A brief description of these irrigation types is given below. The type of technology affects the choice of irrigation method. Surface irrigation is preferred if the irrigation water contains much sediment. This chapter gives some very broad guidance and indicates several important criteria in the selection of a suitable irrigation method. Testing of the various methods – under the prevailing local conditions – provides the best basis for a sound choice of irrigation method. In drip irrigation, water is applied near the plant root through emitters or drippers, on or below the soil surface , at a low rate varying from 2 – 20 litres per hour. Here a pump is connected to pipes which generate pressure and water is sprinkled through nozzles of pipes. The purchase of equipment requires high capital investment per hectare. Among all the irrigation methods, the drip irrigation is the most efficient and it can be practised in a large variety of crops, especially in vegetables, orchard crops, flowers and plantation crops. Clay soils with low infiltration rates are ideally suited to surface irrigation. Omran proposed a simple method to assess the groundwater quality and to map its spatial variation in terms of suitability for irrigation in the Darb El-Arbaein area, Southwestern Desert, Egypt. They result from a combination of soil type and rooting depth. Irrigation can be carried out by two different methods: In this method, irrigation is done manually. This type of irrigation is rarely used as it requires more maintenance. Water is an essential element for survival. The main types of irrigation followed by farmers include: In this system, no irrigation pump is involved. Furrow irrigation is best used for irrigating row crops such as maize, vegetables and trees. Still, we have to depend on some outside sources to fulfil the water requirements of our body. You’ll learn all the above mentioned irrigation methods in details here. Irrigation water quality can best be determined by chemical laboratory analysis. Also, a regular supply of fuel and spare parts must be maintained which - together with the purchase of equipment - may require foreign currency. It is not certain that the farmers will accept the new method. Surface irrigation requires accurate land levelling, regular maintenance and a high level of farmers' organization to operate the system. However, the climate supports cultivation throughout the year. This chapter gives some very broad guidance and indicates Using groundwater influenced by seawater intrusion for irrigation can lead to crop failure, erosion of machinery and pipes, and adverse effects on farming. Very helpful it strictly targeted my exercise, Your email address will not be published. Type of crop. Border irrigation can be used on sloping land up to 2% on sandy soil and 5% on clay soil. Strong wind can disturb the spraying of water from sprinklers. In general it can be stated that to operate the system, basin irrigation requires the least labour and the least skill. several important criteria in the selection of a suitable irrigation method. surface, sprinkler or drip irrigation, depends mainly on the following factors: - natural conditions - type of crop Farmer must know which method suits the local conditions best. Pressurized irrigation It is obvious that farmers will only be interested in implementing a certain method if they consider this economically attractive. Paddy rice is always grown in basins. 18 Methods Of Irrigation - Suitability, Advantages And ... ... Sign in Under very windy conditions, drip or surface irrigation methods are preferred. But its efficiency is poor because of the uneven distribution of water. Surface irrigation can be used for all types of crops. Surface II. Irrigation methods is the fifth in a series of training manuals on irrigation. The equipment needed is often easier to maintain and less dependent on the availability of foreign currency. surface, sprinkler or drip irrigation, depends mainly on the following factors: Natural conditions; Type of crop; Type of technology Water is applied in the root zone of the crop. If the slope is more than 1%, terraces can be constructed. surface, sprinkler or drip irrigation, depends mainly on the following factors: The natural conditions such as soil type, slope, climate, water quality and availability, have the following impact on the choice of an irrigation method: Sandy soils have a low water storage capacity and a high infiltration rate. Irrigation systems are often designed to maximise efficiencies and minimize labour […] ), This means that if only little water is to be applied per application, e.g. Introducing a previously unknown method may lead to unexpected complications. Surface irrigation may be difficult to use on irregular slopes as considerable land levelling may be required to achieve the required land gradients. To maintain the equipment a high level of 'know-how' has to be available,. If the infiltration rate is higher than 30 mm/hour, sprinkler or drip irrigation should be used. Here, water is distributed across the land by gravity. The net irrigation application values used are only a rough guide. A sprinkler system, as its name suggests, sprinkles water over the crop and helps in an even distribution of water. Micro-irrigation is the application of small quantities of water frequently directly above and below the surface of the soil, in the form of discrete drops, continuous drops through water emitters. To choose an irrigation method, the farmer must know the advantages and disadvantages There are five basic methods of irrigation (flooding, furrow irrigation, trickle, sprinkling, and sub irrigation). Figure 65 Surface irrigation requires a high labour input. Basin Irrigation method is primarily used for crops that stand in water for more extended periods, flat lands where rice is grown or in terraces on hillsides. This section discusses some of the important factors which should be taken into account when determining which surface irrigation method is most suitable: basin, furrow or border irrigation. In this type of irrigation, either the field is flooded (this is known as Basin Irrigation) or the water is fed into small channels (this is known as furrow irrigation). To identify potential irrigable land, irrigation suitability factors such as soil type, slope, land cover/use, and distance from water supply were taken into account. If the irrigation water contains dissolved salts, drip irrigation is particularly suitable, as less water is applied to the soil than with surface methods. Also Read: Traditional Methods of Irrigation. Here, a farmer pulls out water from wells or canals by himself or using cattle and carries to farming fields. Sub Surface Irrigation. Surface irrigation often requires a much higher labour input - for construction, operation and maintenance - than sprinkler or drip irrigation (Figure 65). The required labour inputs for construction and maintenance depend heavily on the extent to which machinery is used. The suitability of the various irrigation methods, i.e. Irrigation is the process of supplying water to the land at regular intervals by means of canals and other artificial methods, to enhance agricultural growth and maintain the landscape during the periods of less average rainfall. If there is no tradition in irrigation, the most simple irrigation method to introduce is basin irrigation. maize, sorghum, trees, etc. Their operation and maintenance is simple (see Figure 66). Controlled: Water is applied from the head ditch and … The main objective of this research is to compare different irrigation methods based upon a parametric evaluation system in an area of 41,200 ha in the Rasht region, north Iran. Assessing the suitability of land for irrigation ... extent of soils and their attributes in the priority regions. It is not suitable for close growing crops (e.g. The result shows … It was very useful for my seminar presentation. Furrow irrigation - with the possible exception of short, level furrows -requires accurate field grading. The suitability of the various irrigation methods, i.e., surface, sprinkler or drip irrigation depends mainly on the following factors: a. It is one of the most primitive and insufficient methods of irrigation. Sprinkler and drip irrigation require little land levelling; system operation and maintenance are less labour-intensive. 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