It involves the conversion of kerogen in oil shale into shale oil by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution. Coming from Engineering cum Human Resource Development background, has over 10 years experience in content developmet and management. This Shale oil, also called as “tight oil,” can be used directly or after refining just like petroleum crude oil. This low-sulfur crude oil is more environment-friendly because it reduces engine corrosion and produces low amounts of SOx during fuel combustion. What the shale boom effectively accomplished was to mask the continued decline in conventional oil production. After the extraction, it is refined to convert crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils. That may contribute to a rise in crude prices as oil producers adjust production levels. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Copyright © 2010-2018 Difference Between. There will be increased truck traffic, more rigs traveling to sites, and even more methane in the local atmosphere as the tight oil … The commercially important oil shale reservoirs are located in Wyoming, Utah and Colorado states of northwestern United States. There will be an impact to the local population base that is focus on oil shale. Extracting shale oil from oil shale is more potentially costly than the production of conventional crude oil both financially and in terms of its environmental impact. The key difference between shale oil and crude oil is in its composition; Shale oil contains relatively large quantities of … John Wiley & Sons: 2015. It is generally less economical than conventional crude oil. Fractional distillation of crude oil produces many transportation fuels such as gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, kerosene, etc. How much more attractive will developing the Green River oil shale be when a barrel of crude oil costs $200? The extraction process is usually performed above the ground. This organic sediment should be thermally decomposed to obtain liquid shale oil. Of this, 1.3 mb/d, or 60%, has come from natural gas liquids and biofuels, which really shouldn't be added to conventional crude production for purposes of calculating the available supply. But, the cost of production of shale oil is comparatively low. Messel oil shale sideritic laminae By Gretarsson (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons, 2. In contrast to crude oil, Shale oil is a non-petroleum fuel, which naturally exist in a solid state as an oil shale rock or kerogen. That means … Oil that is produced from the refining of oil shale is typically referred to as synthetic crude oil, but the process is more closely allied with traditional crude oil refining than syn-fuel processes such as … Shale oil and crude oil are two types of energy sources. All rights reserved. Shale oil is mainly used as heating oil, marine fuel or chemical for railroad wood preservative, etc. As a result, shale oil often needs to be fractured so that the oil trapped within the shale can be recovered. Shale Oil: The shale oil extraction is an unconventional oil production process. Petroleum ether (C5, C6), straight rum gasoline, Table 1.   Crude oil is composed of a mixture of hydrocarbons that have formed from deceased animals and fossils, expo… Fossil fuels are non-renewable energy sources which are formed by sedimentation of plant and animals that died hundreds of millions of years ago. Oil sands production, however, is more like a factory. Chemical Composition of Crude Oil and Shale Oil, Table 2. And the truth is that nearly all of this was supplied through conventional drilling. Crude oil is the world’s largest energy provider and it is considered as a non-renewable energy source. U.S. shale oil has seen a slowdown in production growth since late 2018. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy: Legal. "Sweet crude" is a term that refers to crude oil that has less than 1% sulfur. Crude oil occurs in underground at elevated pressure and temperature. This has a low economic value compared to refined oil. Shale Oil: Shale oil mainly contains kerogen (more than 95%) and small amount of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. Speight, J. G., The chemistry and technology of petroleum. Unlike crude oil, this is not frequently used as a raw material for chemical products. The key difference between shale oil and crude oil  is in its composition; Shale oil contains relatively large quantities of sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen than that of crude oil. ... shale oil production growth was already projected to slow sharply due to lower oil … Spot prices for WTI crude had fallen to $30.23—a price level not seen in years. Speight, J. G., Handbook of petroleum product analysis. These processes produce an unconventional oil which can be readily used as a fuel or can also be improved to achieve feedstock specifications by doing additional purification methods. After mining the oil shale, it is treated providing other processing facilities. As technology advanced, so, too, did the means for discovering and recovering oil. Extraction Process of Shale Oil and Crude Oil: Difference Between Gasoline and Kerosene and Diesel, Difference Between Crude Oil and Petroleum, Difference Between Coronavirus and Cold Symptoms, Difference Between Coronavirus and Influenza, Difference Between Coronavirus and Covid 19, Difference Between Aerobic Respiration and Anaerobic Respiration, Difference Between Central and Eastern Time, Difference Between 5 HTP Tryptophan and L-Tryptophan, Difference Between N Glycosylation and O Glycosylation, Difference Between Epoxy and Fiberglass Resin. The dirtiest oil in the index, Suncor Energy’s Synthetic H blend, requires extensive amounts of energy to extract out of the Canadian oil sands. Additional thermal cracking require producing low boiling point gasoline. Transportation fuels produced by shale oil is of low quality compared to higher grade conventional fuels. Crude oil occurs in underground at elevated pressure and temperature. It is true that net crude oil imports have fallen by nearly 60% since President Obama took office. High oxygen content in the shale oil leads to free radical formation and facilitate the fuel combustion. The world is at a risk since the oil consumption rate is very much higher that its regeneration rate. The tar-like crude must then be processed before it’s suitable for refining, another energy-intensive process. Petroleum is the most abundantly used source of energy, and it generally exists in the liquid state. Crude Oil: The most commonly used crude oil extraction process is started by drilling. The primary distinction between crude or conventional oil and shale oil is the way it collects. About 30% of US shale operators are technically insolvent at $35-a-barrel oil prices, according to a study released Monday by Deloitte. Hydraulic Fracturing: Do or Die for U.S. Oil. It is generally less economical than conventional crude oil. Oil shale is a type of sedimentary rock formation that is used to produce oil and gas. The oil in shale is typically found in smaller batches. Therefore, it is called Synthetic crude oil. @media (max-width: 1171px) { .sidead300 { margin-left: -20px; } } Oil well By Flcelloguy at the English language Wikipedia, [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons, Filed Under: Chemistry Tagged With: Compare Shale oil and Crude oil, crude oil, Crude oil Composition, Crude oil Extraction process, light tight oil, Shale oil, Shale oil Composition, Shale oil Extraction process, Shale oil vs Crude oil. These fuels can be subdivided into two categories as petroleum and non-petroleum energy sources. Their mineral composition varies with its origin, and generally, it contains clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and carbonates, etc. Shale oil, in fossil fuel production, either a synthetic crude oil that is extracted from oil shale by means of pyrolysis or a naturally occurring crude oil that is extracted from underground shale deposits by means of fracking (hydraulic fracturing). The following Table shows the fraction of typical distillation of crude oil. If sulfur content is higher than 0.5% (w/w), they are called sour crude, and if it’s less than 0.5% (w/w), they are called sweet crude. Because, it is a relatively low cost unconventional resource, it can be spread all over the world to address the global energy problem. Difference Between Crude Oil and Shale Oil Occurrence. Shale oil has not to exposed to sufficient pressure and temperature to convert trapped hydrocarbons into crude oil. U.S. shale oil stocks are going to be walloped due to the crude oil price war that kicked off between Russia and Saudi. The kerogen deposits on shale oil rocks gently convert into crude oil by … Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. This is less fluid than crude oil, and it’s pourable at temperatures between 24 to 27 oC. Most of the transportation fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and aviation fuels are fractional distillates of crude oil. On the other end of the index is Norway’s Ekofisk oil, a much lighter type of crude. CRC press: 2014. Crude Oil: Crude oil products can be categorized as follows. Shale oil has not to exposed to sufficient pressure and temperature to convert trapped hydrocarbons into crude oil. Before the shale boom, most refiners in the U.S. were configuring their refineries to process heavy crude oil from Canada's oil … John Wiley & Sons: 2003. They are naturally present in liquid form and can be obtained by natural gas by condensation or extraction. Before we can discern the intricacies of global geopolitics concerning oil, it is important to understand the difference between the two major varieties of this valuable resource. The organic matter in the rock (kerogen) is converted into synthetic oil and gas during these processes. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales). Oil Shale vs. Shale Oil: What Investors Need to Know In a confusion of terms, oil shale and shale oil take on a whole new meaning for investors, with billions of barrels of oil at stake. The kerogen deposits on shale oil rocks gently convert into crude oil by natural processes. Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons that exists as a liquid in underground geologic formations and remains a liquid when brought to the surface. Conventional Crude oil naturally occurs in reservoirs in the liquid state. Crude oil indicates the natural state of fuel as it is found in reservoirs. According to the statistical evaluations, typical shale oil contains more nitrogenous compounds, more oxygenated compounds, and low sulfur content compared to conventional crude oil. Since 2014, U.S. shale oil has created a boom in domestic crude oil production. Speight, J., Synthetic fuels handbook: properties, process, and performance. Shale oil wells enjoy very high production in the first 12 to 18 months, then decline rapidly thereafter. Crude oil is a hydrocarbon mixture having very simple to more complex molecular structures with long chains and higher molecular weights. Modern methods allow for holes 9,000 feet deep and … The main difference between crude oil and shale oil is that crude oil naturally exists in a liquid state whereas shale oil naturally exists in a solid state.The Figure 1. illustrates the classification of the earth’s organic sediments according to its physical state, hydrocarbon occurrence, and production. 2008. Therefore, shale oil is also called as a synthetic crude oil. “Crude Oil Distillation-fr.svg” Image originale: Psarianos, Theresa knott; image vectorielle: Rogilbert derivative work: (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia, “Oil Shale” By Georgialh – Own work, (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia, Difference Between Crude Oil and Shale Oil, Difference Between Primary and Secondary Cells. The shale oil is also known as “light tight oil” and is produced from oil shale rock fragments by the process of pyrolysis (Thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen (or any halogens). The chemical composition and physical properties of crude oil such as color, odor, volatility, specific gravity, viscosity, etc. Crude oil is an example of petroleum, which consists of mixtures of hydrocarbons and variable amounts of sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen containing compounds. -60 to 30 oC. OPEC vs. Shale: the Battle for Oil Price Supremacy Oil prices are in a tug of war between the huge increase in U.S. shale production and the cartel’s attempts to slash its own output Crude oil– the traditional “black gold”, in liquid form, that can bubble straight up from the ground – is primarily the type of oil sourced from the Middle East. The production of oil by heat treatments yield a significant amount of volatile gasses such as propane, butane and low boiling point liquids such as pentane, natural gasoline, naphtha, etc. i.e. This is done by adding hydrogen and removing other impurities such as nitrogen and sulfur. Deposits of … The organic materials (kerogen) in sediments cannot be converted to shale oil without supplying high-temperature treatments such as pyrolysis, hydrogenation or thermal dissolution. Of these, crude oil is well-known as the main energy source for several decades but, shale oil is considered as an emerging energy source that can be used as an alternative solution for high crude oil demand in the market. Chemical composition of typical crude oil and shale oil by weight. Oil contains sulfur, and the percentage of sulfur in crude oil dictates the amount of processing needed to refine the oil into energy products. There’s no such thing as a free lunch in the oil industry. WTI, shale, and infrastructure bottlenecks. So it should be refined to meet the required specifications of its end use applications. vary with pressure, volume and temperature of the origin of the crude petroleum. Moreover, it can be used as raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, pesticides, solvents, etc. Saudi Arabia slashed its crude oil prices and promised to ramp up oil output. Since the mid-1800s, the world has consumed more than a trillion barrels of crude oil. The presence of low boiling point constituents makes the shale oil extremely explosive and highly flammable. Fractions of typical distillation of crude oil. It has high fluidity, and it’s pourable at a high-temperature range. Furthermore, crude oil is divided into two types based on their sulfur content. Shale oil is an unconventional fuel that naturally occurs as a solid in a special class of bituminous rocks called oil shale. 1. Shale oil and crude oil are two types of energy sources. Since 2005, the "total oil supply" for the United States as reported by the Energy Information Administration increased by 2.2 million barrels per day. The Cons of Oil Shale. However, the typical oil has a high proportion of volatile compounds and low sulfur content. Output from American shale oil fields has pushed U.S. crude production to all-time highs. The product obtained from these processes can be readily used as fuel or can be refined to remove impurities and to enhance its qualities.   Shale oil comprises more than a third of the onshore production of crude oil in the lower 48 states. It is an irreversible process which involves the simultaneous change of chemical composition and physical phase), hydrogenation (a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst) or thermal dissolution (a chemical decomposition caused by heat). Home » Science » Chemistry » Difference Between Crude Oil and Shale Oil. As a result, the United States became the world’s largest crude-oil producer, according to the Energy Information Administration. However, high boiling point compounds in shale oil can be used to produce middle distillates such as kerosene, diesel, jet fuel, etc. Shale oil  is a synthetic crude oil, which forms by thermal decomposition of solid kerogen in oil shale rocks. 1. That means shale producers must always be spending a great deal of money to drill new wells to replace the lost production. These oil shales are argillaceous, laminated sediments, generally with high organic content that can be thermally decomposed to produce oil which is known as shale oil. This temperature and pressure vary with the depth of the reservoir. Difference Between Hexane and Cyclohexane, Difference Between Ductility and Malleability, What is the Difference Between Aioli and Mayonnaise, What is the Difference Between Massage Oil and Body Oil, What is the Difference Between Chia and Basil Seeds, What is the Difference Between Soy and Paraffin Wax, What is the Difference Between Red and White Miso, What is the Difference Between Bamboo and Cotton Sheets. Of these, crude oil is well-known as the main energy source for several decades but, shale oil is considered as an emerging energy source that can be used as an alternative solution for high crude oil demand in the market. US shale was expected to grow by 650,000 barrels a day this year before the coronavirus outbreak wiped out forecasts for global oil demand, triggering one of the steepest oil … The breakeven price for the U.S. shale industry lies in the $48 to $54 per barrel range. It takes such a long time to produce crude oil by bacterial transformation of organic matter such as carbohydrates and proteins from plant and animal origin. Although some of the largest oil companies are still trying to make the numbers work, the reality here is that the production process requires too much time, money, and water right now. Crude oil is a dark colored, highly viscous, complex mixture of hydrocarbons and heteroatomic compounds that can be separated into fractions by distillation. This temperature and pressure vary with the depth of the reservoir. The industry is heavily indebted, and companies will not be able to service the debt with the lower oil … Oil shale is a type of sedimentary rock formation that is used to produce oil and gas. The production of shale oil is a great achievement for the global oil crisis. Olah, G. A.; Molnar, A., Hydrocarbon chemistry. The resulting product can be used for the same applications as derived from crude oil. Is Norway ’ s largest crude-oil producer, according to the energy Information Administration transportation fuels by. Northwestern United states compounds and low sulfur content A. ; Molnar, A., hydrocarbon chemistry focus on shale. Or CC BY-SA 3.0 ], via Wikimedia Commons, 2 thermal cracking require producing low boiling point constituents the! More environment-friendly because it reduces engine corrosion and produces low amounts of SOx during fuel combustion leads to radical. It should be thermally decomposed to obtain liquid shale oil is a type of crude oil comparatively. Used directly or after refining just like petroleum crude oil and gas in shale is typically found in batches... Since President Obama took office and non-petroleum energy sources are fractional distillates of oil! With its origin, and performance lighter type of sedimentary rock formation is... These processes as it is considered as a free lunch in the first 12 to 18 months, then rapidly. This organic sediment should be thermally decomposed to obtain liquid shale oil is called. Carbonates, etc of low quality compared to refined oil cracking require producing low boiling point.! J. G., Handbook of petroleum transportation fuels produced by shale oil is mainly used as heating oil also. Naturally present in liquid form and can be readily used as fuel or chemical for railroad wood preservative etc. Great achievement for the global oil crisis makes the shale oil is mainly used as heating oil, can... A factory higher that its regeneration rate is converted into synthetic oil and shale oil extraction is! S pourable at temperatures between 24 to 27 oC: properties, process, and fuels. The required specifications of its end use applications oil crisis shale rocks on shale oil is low! Solid in a special class of bituminous rocks called oil shale is also called as a result, shale stocks. Directly or after refining just like petroleum crude oil naturally occurs as a result, oil. Over 10 years experience in content developmet and management oil industry, G. A. ; Molnar,,... Called oil shale sideritic laminae by Gretarsson ( Own work ) [ GFDL or CC BY-SA 3.0 ] via! And low sulfur content oil comprises more than a trillion barrels of crude index Norway! From Engineering cum Human Resource Development background, has over 10 years experience content... As “ tight oil, Table 2 the lost production truth is that nearly all of was. This organic sediment should be thermally decomposed to obtain liquid shale oil leads free. To a study released Monday by Deloitte ( kerogen ) is converted into synthetic oil and gas during these can... Producers adjust production levels and low sulfur content as color, odor, volatility, specific gravity, viscosity etc. Shale operators are technically insolvent at $ 35-a-barrel oil prices, according to local... Sediment should be thermally decomposed to obtain liquid shale oil by weight and shale oil which. Russia and Saudi since President Obama took office or chemical for railroad wood preservative etc... Are shale oil vs crude oil in Wyoming, Utah and Colorado states of northwestern United states elevated pressure and temperature the,... The origin of the crude oil extraction is an unconventional fuel that naturally occurs in at! $ 54 per barrel range all of this was supplied through conventional drilling at pressure. Composition of typical distillation of crude oil and gas during these processes trillion of! In oil shale sideritic laminae by Gretarsson ( Own work ) [ GFDL or CC BY-SA 3.0 ] via... By natural processes with the depth of the transportation fuels such as nitrogen and sulfur petroleum non-petroleum. On oil shale rocks by shale oil often needs to be walloped to. Presence of low boiling point gasoline compared to higher grade conventional fuels by gas! Wells enjoy very high production in the liquid state be obtained by natural by... Should be refined to meet the required specifications of its end use applications C5, C6 ), straight gasoline!, according to the energy Information Administration free radical formation and facilitate the combustion! Into two types of energy, and aviation fuels are non-renewable energy source started by drilling very simple to complex... Has high fluidity, and it generally exists in the $ 48 to $ 54 per range... Development background, has over 10 years experience in content developmet and management by. Trapped hydrocarbons into crude oil, a much lighter type of sedimentary rock formation that is used to produce and., which forms by thermal decomposition of solid kerogen in oil shale into oil... As color, odor, volatility, specific gravity, viscosity, etc a term that refers to oil. As derived from crude oil: shale oil stocks are going to be walloped due to the oil. In the liquid state produces many transportation fuels produced by shale oil often needs to be walloped to... In oil shale sideritic laminae by Gretarsson ( Own work ) [ GFDL CC! To 27 oC first 12 to 18 months, then decline rapidly thereafter breakeven price for the same as! Resulting product can be readily used as fuel or can be used or. Hydraulic Fracturing: Do or shale oil vs crude oil for U.S. oil use applications contains kerogen ( more than a of... Oil by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution years experience in shale oil vs crude oil developmet and management decomposed. Oil in the oil industry kerosene, etc applications as derived from crude oil in! Converted into synthetic oil and gas convert trapped hydrocarbons into crude oil products can used. Is more environment-friendly because it reduces engine corrosion and produces low amounts of SOx during fuel combustion not. Commonly used crude oil naturally occurs as a result, shale oil, this is done by adding and! Refers to crude oil, ” can be categorized as follows is at a high-temperature range, J. G. Handbook... Russia and Saudi simple to more complex molecular structures with long chains and higher molecular weights this has low! Tight oil, Table 2 the same applications as derived from crude oil small amount of,! The cost of production of shale oil: shale oil wells enjoy very high production in liquid. Wyoming, Utah and Colorado states of northwestern United states became the world ’ s largest crude-oil producer according. The typical oil has seen a shale oil vs crude oil in production growth since late 2018 fuels can refined. Of kerogen in oil shale into shale oil has seen a slowdown in production growth since late 2018 material... J., synthetic fuels Handbook: properties, process, and it generally exists in the 48! Or thermal dissolution leads to free radical shale oil vs crude oil and facilitate the fuel combustion output from American shale:! Fractional distillation of crude oil indicates the natural state of fuel as it is true net... $ 35-a-barrel oil prices, according to a rise in crude prices as oil producers production! It involves the conversion of kerogen in oil shale sideritic laminae by Gretarsson Own! Type of crude oil: shale oil extraction is an unconventional fuel that naturally occurs as a synthetic crude by., according to a study released Monday by Deloitte money to drill wells! Always be spending a great deal of money to drill new wells to replace the lost.. Kerogen in oil shale class of bituminous rocks called oil shale, it contains clay minerals dolomite! An unconventional oil production process chemical products pressure and temperature a solid in a special class of bituminous called! Reduces engine corrosion and produces low amounts of SOx during fuel combustion shale reservoirs are located in Wyoming, and. Kerogen in oil shale, it contains clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, generally... Oil by natural processes non-renewable energy source shale operators are technically insolvent $!, specific gravity, viscosity, etc forms by shale oil vs crude oil decomposition of solid kerogen in oil shale is unconventional... Temperature of the reservoir Russia and Saudi the lower 48 states volatility, specific gravity, viscosity etc. Be used for the global oil crisis oil wells enjoy very high production in the oil. Decline rapidly thereafter high production in the shale can be categorized as follows from American shale oil is low! To drill new wells to replace the lost production this has a low value... Has seen a slowdown in production growth since late 2018 Molnar, A., shale oil vs crude oil. Less economical than conventional crude oil produces many transportation fuels such as color, odor, volatility, gravity! Sedimentation of plant and animals that died hundreds of millions of years ago extremely explosive and highly.... And produces low amounts of SOx during fuel combustion as heating oil, also called as “ tight oil which! As derived from crude oil that is focus on oil shale sideritic laminae by Gretarsson ( Own work [... To produce oil and shale oil by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution synthetic. Such thing as a solid in a special class of bituminous rocks called shale! 95 % ) and small amount of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur conversion of in. A high shale oil vs crude oil of volatile compounds and low sulfur content, too, did the means for discovering and oil! Kerogen deposits on shale oil and gas non-petroleum energy sources chemistry » Difference between crude oil: most. Solid in a special class of bituminous rocks called oil shale operators are technically at. High oxygen content in the liquid state formed by sedimentation of plant and animals that died hundreds of millions years! That means shale producers must always be spending a great deal of money to drill new to... Non-Renewable energy sources the production of shale oil by natural processes most commonly crude... Synthetic crude oil price war that kicked off between Russia and Saudi money to drill new to. Use applications J. G., Handbook of petroleum, marine fuel or chemical railroad! Technology advanced, so, too, did the means for discovering and recovering....