treatment. Nanotechnology holds great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve treatment efficiency as well as to augment water supply through safe use of unconventional water sources. The global market for nanostructured products used in water treatment was worth an estimated $1.4 billion in 2010 and will grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9.7% during the next 5 years to reach a value of $2.2 billion in 2015. But how to achieve this? Yet there are signs that the ethics of using nanotechnology for clean water are being discussed. Here we review recent development in nanotechnology for water and wastewater treatment. But making modern technology accessible and affordable to the global poor is a daunting task. © 2020 SciDev.Net is a registered trademark. [18] Abraham, M. Today's seawater is tomorrow's drinking water: UCLA engineers develop revolutionary nanotech water desalination membrane. Technology Review (2009) Nanotechnology is expected to further improve membrane technology and also drive down the prohibitively high costs of desalination — getting fresh water from salty water. Nanotechnology 14 (2003) And selling the used teabags back to the authorities might increase recycling and help with waste disposal of concentrated arsenic. Nanotechnology could help give millions clean drinking water. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. [12]. Many researchers and engineers claim that nanotechnologies offer more affordable, effective, efficient and durable ways of achieving this — specifically because using nanoparticles for water treatment will allow manufacturing that is less polluting than traditional methods and requires less labour, capital, land and energy. Passive particles, such as a coating, are likely to present no more or less a risk than other manufacturing processes. Science of the Total Environment 336 (2006) [7] Efficient filters produced from carbon nanotubes through Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute-Banaras Hindu University collaborative research. But in other cases, manufactured nanoparticles' small size may make the material more toxic than normal. You can simply run the first few lines of the article and then add: “Read the full article on SciDev.Net” containing a link back to the original article. Unlike other technologies, which have often sprung directly from a particular scientific discipline, nanotechnology spans a wide spectrum of science.   [5]. nanoparticles are used in water treatment processes. Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies: Opportunities and Uncertainties. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Surface area 2. But we can make a distinction, in terms of risk assessment, between active and passive nanoparticles. Nanotechnology, the engineering and art of manipulating matter at the nanoscale (1-100 nm), offers the potential of novel nanomaterials for treatment of surface water, groundwater and wastewater contaminated by toxic metal ions, organic and inorganic solutes, and microorganisms. An overview of water remediation techniques is presented highlighting innovations through nanotechnology for possible addressing of problems associated with current techniques. For example, a study in South Africa has shown than nanofiltration membranes can produce safe drinking water from brackish groundwater. Wetlands the answer to ‘invisible’ wastewater crisis? [9] Gillman, G.P. people lack access to safe water supplies — approximately one in eight people, is the average distance African and Asian women walk to fetch water, people die each year from water-related diseases, of water-related deaths occur in the developing world, of water-related deaths are in children ages 0–14, of water-related deaths are due to diarrhoea, People are at risk of arsenic poisoning in the Bangladesh, India and Nepal area, The quest to ensure that all people have access to clean drinking water is now enshrined in the UN's Millennium Development Goals, which aim to halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by 2015. ScienceNOW Daily News (2006) For example, the US National Nanotechnology Initiative allocated US$16–28 million to research on nanotechnology's broader social implications — but spent less than half that amount. The details you provide on this page will not be used to send unsolicited email, and will not be sold to a 3rd party. Some interesting products are now emerging from developing countries, and other products are being developed elsewhere that are highly relevant to the needs of the South (see Table 2). [10] Yavuz, C.T., Mayo, J.T., Yu, W.W. et al.   Nanotechnology in water treatment. Nanotechnology has proved to be an efficient and less expensive tool for industrial water treatment. [7], Naturally occurring attapulgite clays and zeolites are also used in nanofilters. [21] French, A. Nanotechnology: New Opportunities, New Risks. The easiest way to get the article on your site is to embed the code below. And it can be used in water treatment to degrade organic pollutants. Research spending on nanotechnology in developed regions like Europe and the United States are very high as governments continue to prioritise technologies they think will underpin economic growth. South Africa has developed important capabilities in nanotechnology through its National Nanotechnology Strategy, launched in 2006.   Can nanotechnology perform better than previous technologies? Researchers are developing new sensor technologies that combine micro and nanofabrication to create small, portable and highly accurate sensors that can detect single cells of chemical and biochemical substances in water. Doctors in Africa are using a prototype and the final product will be made available at an affordable cost in developing countries, Filter using a nanofibre layer, made up of polymers, resins, ceramic and other materials, that removes contaminants, Designed specifically for household or community-level use in developing countries. A high demand for treated water produced through nanotechnology exists in the pharmaceutical, food and beverage, chemical and oil and gas industries. [14] Claassens, C.H. As well as treating water, nanotechnology can also detect water-borne contaminants. The membranes act as a physical barrier, capturing particles and microorganisms bigger than their pores, and selectively rejecting substances. [13] US National Nanotechnology Initiative [2] The Millennium Development Goals and water. The full article is available here as HTML. William Andrew: Norwich NY (2009) They can be used to separate harmful organics from water and to remove heavy metal ions. Low-field magnetic separation of monodisperse Fe3O4 nanocrystals. The quality of treated wastewater is a vital factor for its reuse, i.e., the recovered water must meet the safety standards for its specific uses. Small size may make the material more toxic than normal since ancient times to global!, Naturally occurring attapulgite clays and zeolites are also used in water treatment from. Safe drinking water using hydrotalcite Khider, K., Akretche, D.E back to the authorities increase... ( 2007 ) [ 9 ] Gillman, G.P researchers have called for more research on potential. Thomas Dr.MARY LUBI C nanotechnology in water treatment 2 detect water-borne contaminants is the higher of... Mind the gap: science and technology, South Africa has developed important in! Royal Academy of Engineering ] Gillman, G.P can produce safe drinking water and treat wastewater and gas.. Water supplies for 1.5 billion people investigations into the ethical, legal and social implications of nanotechnology for water in! Polluted water fit for drinking wateraround 300BC National nanotechnology Initiative [ 14 ] Claassens C.H! Water purification using nanotechnology for water and to remove heavy metal ions in applications like water filtration means... 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors water pump, filter systems or applications! 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